Ethics. Research. Community.

A holistic model of advocacy: factors that influence its use.

Complementary therapies in nursing & midwifery. 
[Record Source: PubMed]
Although advocacy is embraced by nursing as an essential component of holistic philosophy, its scope is often limited in practice. In this article, a research study that examined the use of an expanded definition of advocacy is described. A link to the role of advocacy as a complementary therapy and in relation to facilitating the use of complementary therapies by patients is provided. Fifty-two registered nurses completed a researcher developed advocacy research instrument that assessed the use of moral-ethical, legal, political, spiritual, and substitutive advocacy along with various factors thought to influence the use of advocacy including moral development, perceived assertiveness, and perceived job security. An additional 40 RN-BSN students generated case studies of advocacy enacted in practice that were used as examples of the five categories of advocacy and to support the findings of the survey. Results indicated that moral-ethical advocacy was used more often than the other four categories. Moral stage development had a significant effect on substitutive advocacy but assertiveness and job security were not significant factors influencing any category of advocacy.
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